Glossary of terms

Technical terms simply explained

“E” virtual illuminant E; achromatic point for the “equal energy point” with the arbitrary CIE chromaticity chart coordinates x = y = 1/3.

EBU, European Broadcasting Union Union européenne de radio-télévision (UER) Organization which develops recommendations for the color gamut of the television screens and monitors used in Europe and the relevant transmission signal color values. White point: D65.

eco ink encre écologique casual designation for a series of printing ink in whose binding agent the share of mineral oils was replaced by vegetable oils.

effect pigment inks encres à pigments à effets printing inks in which, instead of or in addition to chromatic pigments, particles have been included which trigger reflection (metallic sheen), interference (pearl luster, angle-dependent color change) or  fluorescent effects (phosphorescence, fluorescence).

electromagnetic spectrum spectre électromagnétique wavelengths emitted by electromagnetic radiators; ranges: low frequency radiation 100000 to 100 km, high frequency radiation 100 km to 1 mm, optical radiation 1 mm to 200 nanometers (1 nm = 1 millionth of a mm), ionizing radiation 200 nm to 0.1 femtometer (millionth of a nanometer). Optical radiation, which is responsible for the formation of color stimulus and which is relevant for print and media, is subdivided as follows: – ultrared (“infrared”, IR, heat radiation) 1 mm to 780 nm (including laser for thermo-CtP printing plates, dispersion varnish drying, photoconductor illustration in laser printer systems); – visible radiation (“VIS”, light spectrum, spectral colors redorange- yellow-green-blue-violet, mixed colors) 780 to 380 nm (all light sources, color-matching booths, standard illuminant lamps, light-emitting diodes, gas/solid/diode color lasers for CtP printing plate illustration, LED UV printing ink drying, monitors, data projectors, measuring light in  colorimetric measuring instruments, remission area of optical brighteners in fluorescent printing inks and papers); – near ultraviolet (UV-1, UV-A/B/C, “quartz UV”, “black light”) 380 to 200 nm (absorption range of optical brighteners, mercury/metal halide lamps for hardening UV inks/paints and hybrid printing inks as well as the illustration of  photopolymer flexo printing plates, exposure of diazo copying layers). Despite their invisibility, UV and IR rays are regarded as optical radiation, because they can be refracted/reflected and acousto-optically modulated within certain limits, like light, using optical systems (lenses, grids, mirrors).

electron beam curing/EBC inks encres EB/séchées aux radiations printing inks which cure through the influence of radiation from an electron beam source (tungsten cathode,Compton wavelength: 0.0024 nm) in an inert gas protective atmosphere. The ionizing effect is so strong the no photoinitiator is required to trigger the cross-linking reaction; application printing germ-free pharmaceutical packages.

elementary hue teinte élémentaire designation for the pure hues of the opponent-color elementary hue system with the symmetrical opposites red-green and yellow-blue (RG, JB); they are mutually exclusive, that is, they have no parts of their neighboring elementary hues. The chromaticity charts a*;b* in CIELAB and u*;v* in CIELUV are based on this idea. CIExyY (1931) colorimetric values for D65/2°: “elementary yellow J” x =0.4449, y = 0.4909, Y = 77.82; “elementary red R” 0.5813, 0.3236 18.11; “elementary blue B” 0.1701, 0.1355, 9.35; “elementary green G” 0.1890, 0.4496, 20.24.

embedding, tagging incorporation the anchoring of ICC device profiles in image, graphic and document files; the profiles remain extractable.

emission émission 1) emission of radiation from all primary sources (sun, fire, lamps, LEDs, laser, monitors, projectors, cold light). 2) release from printing ink and auxiliary substances of substances that are health hazards and environmentally harmful, to be prevented by the manufacturer or compensated for by technical printing processes, e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), photo-initiator fission products (with UV inks) and ozone, as well as the prevention of ink mist/splashes which make the printing press  dirty.

emission factor émissivité quantity of radiation which a body releases in comparison to the ideal Planck radiator at the same temperature; radiance per exposed surface from 0 “no radiation, cold” to 1 “equally intensive”.

emission spectrum spectre d’émission degree of emission as a function of the wavelength. The spectral intensity distribution of light sources, monitors and other self-luminous objects is recorded by radio spectrometers, e.g. GL Optic by Just Normlicht. Some colorimetric measuring instruments – in particular those that are also used for calibrating monitors – can measure the emission spectra of monitors and standard illuminant lamps within the framework of their possibilities and from these calculate practical variables with adequate precision: color values (CIEXYZ, CIELAB) and brightness (luminance in cd/m²) of monitors, ambient light (standard illuminant or
the most similar color temperature in K, illumination intensity in lx) of standard illuminant lamps, e.g. basICColor Discus.

EPS, Encapsulated PostScript platform-independent graphic form .eps in which ICC profiles can be embedded; contains vector/object, raster graphic, separation data and
fonts, optionally also small preview images.

equidistantuniform équidistant see sensationally equidistant

Esko-Graphics Belgian software provider for the design of packaging/labels as well as digital printing; outstanding color products: Color Engine Pilot creates multi-channel ICC output profiles for offset and flexo printing with special colors; Kaleidoscope 4-D creates and manages brightness, glaze and chromaticness gradations of special colors in a database from which the spectral data for the ICC output profiles can be used; the flexo printing conversion module InkSwitch can optimize CMYK separations in the ink set  number, e.g. calculate a 3 or 2-color separation from these.

EuPIAEuropean Printing Ink Association CEPE working group of printing ink manufacturers; particularly important for printing food packaging are 2 guidelines for the production of printing ink for packaging.

Euroscale gamme européenne unifiée (GEU) obsolete “European color scale” for book and offset printing; replaced between 1997 and 2002 in all printing processes by the ISO 2846 scale, for which the name Euroscale is still used frequently but incorrectly. In the USA everything which does not correspond to SWOP or G7 and is produced with a positive copy and a 60-L/cm screen is colloquially termed Euroscale.

Eurostandard a worldwide standardization concept developed by System Brunner which was geared to the Euroscale offset printing system during its introduction in 1975; a non-European version is being marketed as a global standard. Eurostandard was adapted to the technologies in prepress printing and printing, and in the printing process alone defines more than 30 influencing factors which can lead to color variations in the image. DuPont integrated the Eurostandard as a reference scale in the Cromalin color proof system for the analog as well as for the digital versions, so that analog proof and digital proof became comparable.

exposition exposition lumineuse product H of illuminance E and duration t [lux seconds = lumen × seconds / square meters].

exposure insolation process depending on light quantity, duration and sensitivity of the photo receiver (printing plate, sensor, CCD).

extended colors couleurs X11 see web colors

extender, thinning varnish allongeant, vernis allongeant binding agent used in particular by gravure printers for reasons of cost to reduce the concentration of pigments to a qualitatively acceptable level.

extinction extinction Parameters in physical color mixing; (spectral) extinction is the negative logarithm of the (spectral) degree of transmission.